Glossary of Terms


Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA)
the chemical name of aspirin; a white crystalline derivative C9H8O4 of salicylic acid used for relief of pain and fever. Click here to learn more about ASA.
used to reduce inflammation


one of the body’s first inflammatory signals following an upper respiratory infection


Cox Inhibitor
a type of drug that is used to treat inflammation and pain; COX inhibitors belong to the family of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).


Homeopathic Remedy
a pseudoscientific system of alternative medicine, generally based on the principle that a substance that causes symptoms in a healthy person can be used in diluted form to treat symptoms and illnesses, a principle known as “like-cures-like”. There are no FDA-approved products labeled as homeopathic; this means that any product labeled as homeopathic is being marketed in the U.S. without FDA evaluation for safety or effectiveness.


the process by which your body's white blood cells and the things they make protect you from infection from outside invaders, such as bacteria and viruses
one of a group of related proteins made by white blood cells and other cells in the body; Interleukins regulate immune responses.


Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
an enzyme found in almost every cell of your body, including your blood, muscles, brain, kidneys, and pancreas.
a protein found in cow milk and human milk; Lactoferrin is an important protein component of the innate immune system that is broadly distributed within the body fluids in the eye, nose, respiratory tract and intestine. Click here to learn more about Lactoferrin.
a protein occurring in animals, plants, bacteria and viruses; It can be found in in saliva, milk, honey and egg whites. Click here to learn more about Lysozyme.


FDA “rule book” for each therapeutic category establishing conditions, such as active ingredients, uses (indications), doses, labeling, and testing, under which an OTC drug is generally recognized as safe and effective.


Naturally Derived
any ingredient whose starting material originates from plant, mineral, microbe or animal materials with minimal processing.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
a class of drugs that are widely used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and bring down a high temperature.


In the last decade scientists discovered a way to grow upper respiratory human tissue, intact with all major physiological and biochemical functions, in the laboratory. Through this new state-of-the-art technique, scientists are now able to create organoids, which are self-organized three-dimensional tissue cultures, that help them precisely understand the body’s reaction to viruses and measure key parameters like cytokine secretion (chemical immune response), inflammation, mucus production and cilia locomotion in controlled settings.
Over-The-Counter (OTC) Drugs
medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be supplied only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.


a molecule consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain.
Pharyngitis (sore throat)
inflammation of the pharynx (the cavity behind the nose and mouth) and nearby structures in the upper respiratory system. Pharyngitis is one of the most common symptoms of upper respiratory infection, and a leading cause of physician visits and antibiotic prescriptions, but few, if any, over-the-counter (OTC) medications are proven to address sore throat inflammation.
compounds in the body made of fats that have hormone-like effects; prostaglandins play a key role in the generation of the inflammatory response.


Stem Cells
the body's raw materials — cells from which all other cells with specialized functions are generated. Under the right conditions in the body or a laboratory, stem cells divide to form more cells called daughter cells.


having a healing effect.